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An interaction is a unique dependency from which all relations of a lower ordinality are removed. All of its variables are essential; none can be omitted. By this definition interactions are not embedded in each other, can be said to be the additive content of a relation, and form Boolean lattices. We use "<" and ">" to distinguish interactions from the parameters that contain them. Figure 23 depicts the interactional content of the relation ABCD. Except for the satured model, mo, which contains all interactions possible within the original data, all other models exclude some interactions.

The latter is also connoted by the label unordered data. Page 10 Figure 1 Although many social science data are of this kind, the social sciences are not limited to qualitative dataconsider such variables as age, income, time spent watching TV, and intelligence quotient, which are called quantitative because there can be more or less of it. Nor are qualitative data excluded from other fields of inquiryconsider the distinction between gaseous, fluid, and solid states of matter in physics; positions of a relay or the states of a whole switching network in electrical engineering; treatment histories of patients in medicine; genetic structures in biology; and market compositions in economics, all of which are differentiated by kind, not by magnitude.

So when Pa is the probability of guessing the answer to question A and Pb is the probability of guessing the answer to an independent question B, the probability of guessing both correctly will be Pab = PaPb. It is this property that assures the additivity of information quantitiesfor example, that two floppy disks can contain twice as much information as one. For further explanations of these ideas, see Krippendorff (1975). 3. Entropy, Diversity, Variety Entropy is a measure of observational variety or of actual (as opposed to logically possible) diversity.

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