By James N. Pitts, George S. Hammond, Klaus Gollnick
Natural Photochemical Imaging structures (G. Delzenne). actual Quenchers of Singlet Molecular Oxygen (D. Bellus). Photoluminescence equipment in Polymer technology (S. Beavan et al.). Photochemistry of nutrition D and Its Isomers and of easy Trienes (H. Jacobs and E. Havinga). Kinetics and Mechanisms of the Reactions of the Hydroxyl Radical with natural Compounds within the gasoline part (R. Atkinson et al.). what is New in Excimers?. (V. Yakhot et al.). Index. learn more... content material: Advances in Photochemistry; Contents; natural Photochemical Imaging structures; actual Quenchers of Singlet Molecular Oxygen; Photoluminescence tools in Polymer technology; Photochemistry of diet D and Its Isomers and of easy Trienes; Kinetics and Mechanisms of the Reactions of the Hydroxyl Radical with natural Compounds within the gasoline section; what is New in Excimers?; topic Index; Cumulative Index, Volumes 1-11. summary: natural Photochemical Imaging structures (G. Delzenne). actual Quenchers of Singlet Molecular Oxygen (D. Bellus). Photoluminescence equipment in Polymer technological know-how (S. Beavan et al.). Photochemistry of diet D and Its Isomers and of easy Trienes (H. Jacobs and E. Havinga). Kinetics and Mechanisms of the Reactions of the Hydroxyl Radical with natural Compounds within the gasoline section (R. Atkinson et al.). what is New in Excimers?. (V. Yakhot et al.). Index
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Extra resources for Advances in Photochemistry
The most common method for the formation of such liquids is simple mixing of the Lewis acid and the halide salt, with the ionic liquid forming on contact of the two materials. The reaction is generally quite exothermic, which means that care should be taken when adding one reagent to the other. Although the salts are relatively thermally stable, the build-up of excess local heat can result in decomposition and discoloration of the ionic liquid. This may be prevented either by cooling the mixing vessel (often difficult to manage in a drybox), or else by adding one component to the other in small portions to allow the heat to dissipate.
Generally, the presence of halide impurities is not (as with the ionic liquid’s color) a question of having a nice-looking ionic liquid or not. On the contrary, the halide content can seriously affect the usefulness of the material as a solvent for a given chemical reaction. Apart from the point that some physicochemical properties are highly dependent on the presence of halide impurities (as demonstrated by Seddon and al. ), the latter can chemically act as catalyst poisons , stabilizing ligands , nucleophiles, or reactants, depending on the chemical nature of the reaction.
Indeed, it was reported in one case that unreacted [BMIM]Cl was isolated by crystallization from [BMIM][NO3]. A further example of the potential hazards of metal-containing impurities in ionic liquids is seen when [EMIM][CH3CO2] is prepared from [EMIM]Cl and Pb[CH3CO2]4 . The resulting salt has been shown to contain ca. 5 M residual lead . In practical terms, it is suggested that, in any application where the presence of halide ions may cause problems, the concentration of these be monitored to ensure the purity of the liquids.