By Ousmane Power-Greene
Against Wind and Tide tells the tale of African American's conflict opposed to the yank Colonization Society (ACS), based in 1816 as a way to go back loose blacks to its colony Liberia. even if ACS participants thought of unfastened black colonization in Africa a benevolent company, so much black leaders rejected the ACS, fearing that the association sought compelled elimination. As Ousmane okay. Power-Greene's tale indicates, those African American anticolonizationists didn't think Liberia may ever be a real "black American homeland."
In this learn of anticolonization agitation, Power-Greene attracts on newspapers, assembly mins, and letters to discover the concerted attempt at the a part of 19th century black activists, neighborhood leaders, and spokespersons to problem the yank Colonization Society's try to make colonization of loose blacks federal coverage. The ACS insisted the plan embodied empowerment. the USA, they argued, may by no means settle for loose blacks as electorate, and the one approach to the prestige of loose blacks used to be to create an self sustaining state that will essentially reject racism at its middle. however the activists and reformers at the contrary facet believed that the colonization stream used to be itself deeply racist and in reality one of many maximum stumbling blocks for African american citizens to realize citizenship within the United States.
Power-Greene synthesizes debates approximately colonization and emigration, situating this advanced and enduring factor into an ever broader dialog approximately state construction and identification formation within the Atlantic global.
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Additional resources for Against Wind and Tide: The African American Struggle Against the Colonization Movement
In fact, Samuel Cornish, one of the first black newspaper editors, charged white colonizationists with using newspapers to spread negative views of blacks. 28 For black spokespersons to convince the broader society that black people, given equal opportunity, were worthy of equal citizenship rights, they needed to shift the conversation from deporting black people to Liberia to a discussion centered on how to provide equal opportunities to African Americans, who faced discrimination and antiblack policies at every turn.
34 After gaining support from prominent blacks from Boston to Philadelphia, Saunders shifted his appeal to the mostly white antislavery organization, the American Convention for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and Improving the Condition of the African Race. In 1818, just over a year after the formation of the American Colonization Society, colonization was at the center of debate at the American Convention’s annual meeting, the largest gathering of American Convention members in its history.
By the end of the war, white leaders in both the North and the South contemplated African American colonization as a feature of their emancipation plans. S. borders, especially in Africa, would offer slaveholding whites a realistic way to end slavery gradually without the prospects of having to live amongst the newly emancipated ex-slaves who, they believed, constituted their greatest enemy. introduction / 15 When white state representatives met behind closed doors in Philadelphia in the late 1780s, African Americans asserted their American identity through petitions and letters to state legislatures, arguing that they had just as much right to live in the new nation as whites.