By Moselio Schaechter (auth.), Kendric C. Smith (eds.)
The covalent attachment to deoxyribonucleic acid in vivo of a big variety of varieties of chemicals (both general mobile materials resembling proteins and amino acids, and likewise exogenous compounds reminiscent of medicines, cancer causing agents, and so forth. ) were proven to exert profound results upon cells. 4 study activi ties, previously thought of to be absolutely self reliant, relate to this challenge of nucleic acid adducts--(1) common covalent attachment of DNA to membranes, protein linkers in chromosomes, and so forth. ; (2) the jobs of radiation and chemical enhancement of DNA adduct formation in cellphone killing and mutagenesis. (A similar box is using identified cross-linking reactions to achieve info on structural institutions in macromolecular complexes. ); (3) the relevance of DNA adducts to chemical and radiation carcinogenesis; (4) the rele vance of DNA adducts to the cross-linking conception of mobile getting older. (1) there are various examples of standard linkages among DNA and protein, e. g. , DNA-membrane attachment websites, protein linkers in chromosomes, amino acids covalently associated with DNA as a functionality of development stipulations, and gene law via non-covalently certain proteins. A precis of information on traditional adducts to DNA hence serves to introduce the topic of the radiation and chemical enhancement of DNA adduct formation. (2) long ago, radiation biology has been involved in most cases with attempting to comprehend the radiation chemistry of purified DNA, and the organic results and service of those radiation-induced adjustments whilst produced in mobile DNA.
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Additional info for Aging, Carcinogenesis, and Radiation Biology: The Role of Nucleic Acid Addition Reactions
BALIS DNA-bound amino acids found in cells grown under the same conditions are completely reproducible, altering the growth medium can produce about a ten-fold change. Table 1 shows data that illustrate the findings from replicate isolations. Table 2 demonstrates the effects of growth media on DNA-bound amino acids. Considerable skepticism existed and still does exist regarding the possible role of these amino acids and as to whether they are artifacts of isolation or simply impurities. Many proteins bind DNA.
T +, Present but too small to calculate. t ~g of total amino acids/100 mg DNA, calculated on the assumption that all these residues are involved in peptide linkages (Based upon data by Salser and Balis, 1968). ~ 1968). The objection to these presentations lies in the weakness of the evidence of extensive deproteinization. It may be that the proteins that are destroyed by the protease and whose disulfide bonds are reduced by the reagents employed play a role in DNA-protein structures which is real and vital to the cell but in no way involves covalent linkage or even extremely tightly bound linkage of the protein.
1975, Size and structure of a mammalian DNA determined by sedimentation and confirmed by viscoelastometry, Biophys. J. 15:205a. C. B. ), Plenum Press, New York (in press). , 1967, Rejoining of X-ray induced breaks in the DNA of leukaemia cells, Nature (London) 214:790-792. , 1970, On the size of the DNA in the mammalian chromosome: structural subunits, Biophys. J. 10:277-292. , 1962, Physicochemical changes produced in DNA after alkylation, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 97:80-93. , 1960, The relationship between molecular weight and viscosity as a criterion of damage in DNA, Makromol.