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By Catherine Tumber

Opposite to renowned concept, New Age spirituality didn't abruptly seem in American existence within the Seventies and '80s. In American Feminism and the beginning of latest Age Spirituality, Catherine Tumber demonstrates that the recent Age circulation first flourished greater than a century in the past through the Gilded Age less than the mantle of 'New Thought.'

Based principally on study in well known journals, self-help manuals, newspaper bills, and archival collections, American Feminism and the start of recent Age Spirituality explores the contours of the hot notion circulation. throughout the lives of famous figures similar to Mary Baker Eddy, Madame Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, and Edward Bellamy in addition to via extra vague, yet extra consultant 'New Thoughters' similar to Abby Morton Diaz, Emma Curtis Hopkins, Ursula Gestefeld, Lilian Whiting, Sarah Farmer, and Elizabeth Towne, Tumber examines the ancient stipulations that gave upward push to New concept. She can pay shut consciousness to the ways that feminism grew to become grafted, with various levels of luck, to emergent types of liberal tradition within the overdue 19th century―progressive politics, the Social Gospel, humanist psychotherapy, bohemian way of life, and mass industry journalism.

American Feminism and the delivery of latest Age Spirituality questions the worth of the recent age movement―then and now―to the pursuit of women's rights and democratic renewal.

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46 No one outrivaled Mrs. Eddy either, in Twain's estimation, for sheer hypocrisy. Her doctrinal inconsistencies were laid bare most clearly in her views about money. The Christian Science "god is Mrs. Eddy first, then the Dollar. Not a spiritual Dollar, but a real one. "47 For Twain this was particularly unconscionable, given Mrs. Eddy's refusal---on doctrinal grounds-to commit the church to works of charity. From Mrs. "48 "One of the differences between the New Thought and Christian Science," editorialized the New Thought periodical Mind, "is that .

Wakeman argued that spiritualism underestimated humanity by appealing to the lesser side of human nature. Spiritualists, he maintained, paid insufficient attention to the integrity of the will which, when exercised properly, led to higher knowledge. " "Spiritualism believes in passivity and submitting to 'control,"' he ac­ curately observed. "Theosophy believes in activity-the highest spiritual ac­ tivity. . "35 Gnostic reformers, as will become clear, had difficulty them­ selves synthesizing the claims of both "passivity" and "activity" on the hu­ man spirit.

14 This crisis had deep and longstanding roots in American religious culture. As early as the mid-eighteenth century, as historian James Turner has convinc­ ingly argued, Protestant theologians set the stage for the triumph of science by abdicating their responsibility to maintain religious criteria for knowledge of God. Extracted from a cosmological context of divine transcendence, the spiritual passivity of the Calvinist experience of God became increasingly unbearable. The agonizing self-scrutiny for evidences of grace and for the full 26 � Chapter One appreciation of the malignancy and intractability of sin, upon which old­ time preachers had once insisted, had been intended ultimately to derive consent to one's place in the Gospel Plan as revealed in Scripture.

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