By Scott D. Haldeman, William H. Kirkaldy-Willis, Thomas N. Bernard Jr., B. Wilks
The factors of again ache, the most typical of all consultations, range greatly, accordingly making actual prognosis specially vital. Written by way of a staff of very hot scientists with an unlimited event of the topic, An Atlas of again soreness not just explains easy methods to verify the underlying explanations of your patients' stipulations but additionally describes a few of the therapies available.
This colour atlas will give you an simply obtainable consultant to all facets of again discomfort and its differential analysis. Richly illustrated, it includes greater than one hundred thirty X-rays, CT scans, MRI pictures, and colour photos of either pathology and surgical procedure. It presents supportive textual content that expertly describes the innovations and techniques and designated captions for every representation that increase the book's worth as an atlas-text for educating, residency education, and medical perform. those beneficial properties and extra make An Atlas of again ache the source you are going to achieve for in the event you want details quick.
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Additional info for An Atlas of Back Pain
DISC HERNIATION When compressive or rotational forces are applied to the spine, the fibers of the annulus fibrosus can be stretched beyond their elastic capacity and tear. If these tears are oriented in a radial fashion, the nucleus pulposus may migrate through the tear, causing a protrusion of the disc beyond its natural borders. This can occur as an acute process in a healthy disc given sufficient force. Degenerated discs that already have some degree of annular tearing, usually in a circumferential pattern, have less elastic proteoglycans and are less able to withstand these forces.
12 Muscle regeneration after direct trauma Light microscopy of muscle fibers (monkey) showing regeneration after direct trauma. The transverse band of myoblast nuclei is noted to be central in a new muscle fiber. 13 Muscle regeneration Light microscopy of muscle (cat) showing muscle regeneration. There is a central band of myoblast nuclei, each with two small dark nucleoli. 14 Muscle 3 months after injury Light microscopy of muscle (monkey) 3 months after injury. The upper field shows new muscle fibers (red).
The purple articular cartilage on both sides of the joint is very thin and fragmented. The arrows point to the grossly thickened capsule on both sides of the joint. 17 Degeneration causing foraminal encroachment Longitudinal sagittal section through the lumbar spine at the L4–L5 level showing advanced degeneration of the intervertebral disc and the posterior facets. The intervertebral foramen (large arrow) is much reduced in size as the result of impingement by an enlarged superior articular process of the facet of L5 (small arrow).